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Dark Matter:

A New Theory on Sub-Atomic-Molecular Resonance and Super-Entropy

Version 8

By Ray Cruz

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October 10, 2016

Dark Matter Perspective – Resonance Builds Molecules. Why is dark matter dark? What is it composed of? What if it wasn’t there? So far, no theories have been proposed to satisfactorily answer these questions for most cosmologists, let alone providing a manner of proof. New updates on the Theory of Everything and Black Holes.

Figure 1 For the first time dark matter may have been observed interacting with other dark matter in a way other than through the force of gravity. Observations of colliding galaxies made with ESO’s Very Large Telescope and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have picked up the first intriguing hints about the nature of this mysterious component of the Universe.

A popular theory today is that dark matter may consist of particles like weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) that interact only through gravity and the weak force, which empowers the radioactive decay of subatomic particles and the force behind nuclear radiation. So far, efforts to see these particles in action have failed.

Due to the acknowledged fact that 85 percent of all matter in the universe is dark, based on astronomical measurements of stellar formations and movements, we should consider the possibility that more than one type of particle is involved. The unknown substances may not even comply with the sub-atomic structures we believe to exist based on our best understanding of particle physics.

One possibility we propose is that dark matter represents those basic forms of matter such as hadrons and leptons (large and small subatomic particles) that happen to be odd-sized and abnormal in some ways and therefore do not resonate with the normal constants of mass that make everything functionally synchronized and synergistic as the quantum theory Planck constants do. We often ask ourselves why do the Planck constants and other physical constants exist at their measured levels in our observable universe? Is there a theory that predicts the magic numbers that glue quarks together and enable electrons to reliably orbit our protons and neutrons? Why are we blessed with the exact types of material elements that are able to produce molecules, planets, stars, galaxies and biological creatures like those on our dear planet Earth? So far a theory that comprehensively predicts the exact mass of photons, electrons and other elementary particles and waves has not been discovered. Without the exact standard pattern or quanta of mass and energy we observe in each critical particle any odd-sized quarks could not form hadrons, weird electrons would not be able to orbit atomic nuclei, photons would not be released (or they would be dark), the molecules would be unable to formulate, and all other structural aspects of our universe would collapse. Is an overweight quark the dark demon?

Here we propose that many variations of values in mass and intensity in elementary particles and waves actually exist in our cosmos but only those that resonate, like a perfect musical chord played on a guitar, are able to combine and build the subatomic and atomic blocks of matter that we can see and live with. The remainder and majority of mass is dissonant and does not resonate with any other stable forms that exist in proximate space. The dissonant matter we detect by the effects of gravity is to be what we call dark matter. We may also describe it as “aquantic” meaning that it cannot be quantized in the normal way. This dissonance makes it noncompliant with the standards required for luminous molecular structures. Although the gross particles are measurable in terms of gravity and space, they do not contain the specific mass quanta and other properties that allow them to form into molecules in proximate space at this time and place in the cosmos we live in. Call it sub-atomic junk, if you will, or zombie particles that cannot support life or any type of simple or complex molecule.

We surmise that In our universe, there may be a somewhat random and non-conforming distribution of properties in matter, such as the mass of quarks, electrons and photons, that include only as a minority our Planck constants and quanta that we measure and other values we currently recognize as constants. The constants that we observe in the luminous universe may range somewhere in the middle of this distribution of features. This would allow for some kind of resonance in different environments (multiverses, bucking bangs) where the resonating container, like the length of the guitar strings and shape of the guitar, may vary from those we can measure in our particular luminous universe.

Sub-Atomic-Molecular Resonance (SAM Resonance)

The container or resonator that promotes resonance in matter may be a region of space with different parameters or another instance of the Big Bang or a similar event at another time. If the resonator system changes in its essential parameters in time or space, other levels of mass for various types of particles may be resonant and some of the currently known Planck constants and other familiar constants may be dissonant in those scenarios. The actual resonator is embodied in space and gravity. The energy of vacuum space. The force of gravity. We call this type of resonance “molecular resonance”, to distinguish it from simple vibrations such as in sound and other milieu as well as other types of resonance discussed in physics and chemistry. In organic chemistry the term resonance applies to orbital patterns of electrons in complex molecules, for example. Our concept of molecular resonance, however, focuses on resonance of subatomic particles at a lower level. Perhaps a more definitive name would be “sub-atomic-molecular resonance”, which may be abbreviated as “SAM resonance”. In this scenario the Planck constants and other familiar constants are not perfect, but they are necessary only for the exact resonator parameters that pertain to our particular multiverse instance in our space at this time.

At least one or more of the Planck constants and other familiar constants are not established for the dark matter aquantic elements as we observe today. Resonance builds molecules. Without resonance the sub-atomic junk can only be measured by gravity and space. Since dark matter greatly exceeds the rest of matter that we see, based on gravity measurements in our universe, we can postulate that the universe is not necessarily invested in making the types of molecules that we depend upon for our survival in our particular multiverse, but it does allow for that possibility. The contribution of dark matter as a gravitational pool may by itself be a major factor for the stability of the universe as we know it. What would the universe look like without it? The random spread of parameters may also be a condition that favors some type of resonance under different conditions. Life as we know it in this hypothesis is not a necessary product for every multiverse instance, but life comprised of complex molecules, is supported as a possibility.

Sloppy Big Bang - Super-Entropy

Entropy begets form on occasion, if lucky. Chaotic Big Bang only after millions of years arranging a few messy fragments into molecular clusters. The exception, not the rule. The rule remains dark. Dark matter. Dark entropy. Helping this formation to violate the stochastic rule of entropy are classes of potential subatomic particles. Energy motivated, prodded by the tension derived from the tug-of-war between gravity and expanding space: The resonator. On rare occasions a few particles resonate with one another to form a molecule, based on the governing classes.

Time passes. Gravity keeps on tugging away. Super-entropy engulfs every miniscule cluster of atoms and molecules, even as they begin to form galaxy-scale communities. Surrounded by shadowy masses. Super-entropy rules with the force of gravity. Some information lost. New forms created. Chaos. The chaotic bloom of spring wildflowers. Each flower intrinsically unique. Supersymmetry, an idea. Super-entropy, as obvious as the inexplicable beauty of nature.

The grace of time. The bane of time. Over eons, mayhem yields molecular machines with complex chemistry. Beautiful structures if you have an eye for functional complexity. More time, the maelstrom reclaims order, the order of disorder. Evolution a game of odds. Don’t fall in love with any product of this process. In time, your heart will be broken, unless your species is reclaimed before such inevitability. The original singularity had a shadow. The shadow of super-entropy in space is light.

Dark matter comprises almost 85% of all matter in the universe, according to scientific measurements. Only the remaining 15% resonates in such a way that allows all we see to exist and our bodies and all living things to thrive. This is where all living species that we have identified reside and all we can see for now. Many other types of complex organisms are expected to live in numerous parts of the visible cosmos as well. Molecular resonance also helps energized molecules take shape and liberate themselves from formless gravity pits. In a Big Bang event, there may be the explosion of the smallest elements of matter and energy in all directions. These elements may not be those we define as quarks, electrons, photons, etc. But the gravity is basic to all particles and waves.

The basic elements of matter may be like the strings proposed in other theories, or variations of quarks, gluons or photons or something else entirely that has the capacity to take on the form of these elementary particles and waves of energy. Here we suggest a “Sloppy Big Bang” where many variations of elementary particles with different measures of mass are potentially available from the very beginning including our familiar constants and other values and types of particles and waves. What we call Dark Matter was not an accident but an essential ingredient of the ultimate building blocks we recognize as molecules and all forms of matter and energy. Randomness in material building blocks is not an aberrant feature, it is essential. This level of randomness may also explain why anti-particles and particles did not completely annihilate all matter immediately after the Big Bang based on supersymmetry theories. Dark matter and gravity may provide a kind of firewall to prevent total annihilation by anti-particles.

Black Hole Factory

A mixture of dark and luminous matter may also be present in the black hole jets that are observed in most galaxies in the universe, including our own Milky Way Galaxy. The matter that is drawn into the black hole by gravity would most likely also include dark matter. A simple postulate would be that the ratio of dark to luminous matter drawn into the black hole would be represented in the resulting jet, although what we see is obviously confined to luminous matter. The sub-atomic junk is ejected nonetheless without visible detection along with the visible protons, neutrons and electrons that are thought to be included. This factor would extend the ratio of dark to luminous matter in our universe for the foreseeable future. Gravitational lensing may be examined in black hoe jets as a useful technique for testing this prediction.

Variable Inclusive Universe – Multiverse Model – Big Resonator

The molecular resonator may be based on the total amount of raw energy in the initial state as well as the potential space and the essential force of gravity. Just like the resonator of an acoustic guitar is based on the length of the strings and the tension and other properties of the strings, as well as the wooden structure that binds them together, the resonance of our particular universe or multiverse may be tied to the total raw energy at the point of the Big Bang and its potential space as the “Big Resonator”. Or it may evolve unpredictably in different ways at different times and locations based on other predictable or random events. These factors determine the energy of vacuum space and the force of gravity which embody the actual big resonator. Perhaps we need to get comfortable with the idea that in the biggest frame of the universe, all things may be possible, none are guaranteed. This is a multiverse. Energy, matter and space may exist in a variety of ways and masses, possibly within a larger (maybe absolute?) range of limits. This we may dub as the “Variable Inclusive Universe” (VIU). Zombie particles in one multi-verse instance may spring to life in another based on resonator differences. Chaos begets order.

Recent studies have shown that energy that appears to perform like “dark photons” may be at least a part of dark matter, as depicted with the image in Figure 1. This does not necessarily enhance or refute our current theory since we have proposed dark matter consists of photons and possibly other types of particles with masses that are not consistent with the Planck constants (and are therefore dark) and other particle constants in our familiar theories today. We propose that a dark photon would need to be derived from the energy of another unstable or aquantic electron or other types of particles than those included in our standard constants. A standard electron or proton, for example, will produce a standard photon when impacted by standard energy sources. It will take a maverick electron or proton to produce a maverick photon such as the theoretical dark photon with non-standard mass (as well as other types of non-standard matter as we know it).

With the aid of gravitational lensing studies viewed in the galaxy cluster Abell 3827 it appears that dark photons or other types of dark matter from one galaxy may interact with dark photons or matter from another galaxy in the same cluster. As reported in a recent article from Scientific American: “The scientists found that in at least one of the colliding galaxies the dark matter in the galaxy had become separated from its stars and other visible matter by about 5,000 light-years. One explanation is that the dark matter from this galaxy interacted with dark matter from one of the other galaxies flying by it, and these interactions slowed it down, causing it to separate and lag behind the normal matter.”

The problem that most concerns us with this conjecture of vector interactions between dark matter concentrations (other than gravitational) is that if dark matter can interact this way with dark matter from another galaxy, why doesn’t it also interact in this way within its own galaxy dark matter halo mass? If it is an attractive force it will be undistinguishable from gravity except for possibly an aberrant magnitude. If it is repulsive, it will cause the dark matter halo to destabilize and defeat the essential force of gravity. A more probable explanation for these observations is that there is an unequal distribution of dark matter within the galaxy cluster and that gravity alone is the cause of the observed phenomenon. If dark matter halos are separate or distant from their luminous home galaxies, this would also cause a destabilization of the luminous galaxies.

Another possibility is that the real dark matter halo that holds the galaxy together is not visible with the current gravity lensing techniques possibly due to the line-of-site stacking of more than one dark matter concentration or other obstructions. It is also possible that the dark matter in one concentration or halo is not necessarily comprised of the same mix of odd-sized particles as other separate haloes. This would fit into the concept of randomness as proposed in the Sloppy Big Bang discussion. Some studies today focus on an assumption that dark matter is comprised of one uniform particle or a set of particles that are compatible with one another. This theory is more likely to be supported or discarded by particle collision experiments which are being undertaken at this time and more expected in the future. The search for WIMPs has also utilized tools such as the Large Underground Xenon experiment (LUX) and the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS), for example. These are important studies which are capable of dismantling or indirectly supporting the theses of the Sloppy Big Bang and SAM Molecular Resonance we propose. Even if WIMPs or other single particle candidates are discovered deep underground our earth’s surface, there is still a logical distance to jump to the conclusion that any of these is the only substance that comprises dark matter in our galaxy and universe.

It may be interesting to study why the ratio of dark and light matter exists at the level we see. This may also lead us to investigate the likely causes of dissonance or the properties and constituents of dark matter in our universe. Are there one or two Planck constants or other constants more likely to be the most difficult or unlikely to establish than others? Another interesting question to study is whether the ratio of dark matter to luminous matter in each galaxy is consistent? Are there variations from galaxy to galaxy or from cluster to cluster that may suggest certain patterns, or is the variation random beyond statistical correlations that we can observe and measure?

Dark Matter Halo – Dark 3D Rainbow

Figure 2 - Milky Way: Triaxial Dark Halo

The shape of dark matter domains in a galaxy has been generally described as an ellipsoidal globe or halo that surrounds the galactic disk or in some models may be oriented perpendicular to the disk. A study by Law and colleagues Majewski and Johnston in 2009 suggested the shape of a squashed or flattened beach ball, a triaxial shape with different lengths for each axis, as shown in Figure 2. If dark matter consists of multiple types of particles with different masses, as we propose, there may also be a radial distribution of particles within the halo, based on mass. The simplest model would place the heavier particles nearest to the galactic core, which normally contains a black hole. Think of this arrangement similar to a rainbow, a dark 3D rainbow, if you will. This model may also help to explain how the merging of two galaxies and their dark haloes may trigger a reshaping of each halo since the radial location of heavier and lighter particles within each would need to be redistributed in the complex mixture of the merging haloes. An ellipsoidal globular shape also indicates some type of polarization possibly due to electromagnetic forces. If the polarity is perpendicular to the plane of the visible disk, this would suggest an interaction of electromagnetic forces between the visible and invisible masses. You will need to stretch your imagination to visualize a dark 3D rainbow radially distributed like the central disk in three dimensions.

Our theory also expounds on the distribution of dark matter to include concentrations of dark matter in all parts of luminous matter concentrations including the food we eat, the water we drink, and all parts of our bodies, brains and guts. Wherever there is luminous matter there is also dark matter. The mass of our planet includes the masses of every animate body and inanimate rock, mountain or sea. At the molecular level, the resonator continues to select the most effective particles to resonate with all available particles in the quest to build functional molecules. Every particle collision experiment includes dark matter, although we have not yet deliberately deployed methods to analyze the effect of dark matter in these experiments. The big resonator may have been selected eons ago, but the vital act of selecting resonating particles in everyday life is a continuous process at every level of molecular activity and living chemistry. Molecular SAM Resonation is an ongoing process that never ends.

Evolution of Molecular Resonance

We humans and other living species exist at least for a period of time. The future of our species and other species is not guaranteed and by history is only temporary, as is the future of our planet and our solar system. Some simple species, such as cyanobacteria, have persisted for more than three billion years. The triops may take the record for the oldest extant animal species which originated 220 million years ago and is known as a tadpole shrimp or a shield shrimp. Mammals have an average species lifespan of about one million years, which is about the extent of our particular species. There may be a similar randomness and ambiguity in biological evolution and molecular resonance selection. Only the fittest elementary particles are selected by resonance to create molecules, and only the fittest living species are selected by nature with the ability to reproduce and adapt.

If you have a molecule that is capable of combining with others in complex forms, such as organic chemistry as we know it, life can eventually happen. The molecular resonator is itself selected in competition with other values that are less capable of creating molecules. It is not necessarily a one-way transaction where the resonator is automatically fixed with certain properties that therefrom determine the resonating properties of matter. A two-way process of negotiation between matter and energy can dynamically determine the best fit for the resonator properties and the resonance of matter for the end result of creating the most effective molecules under the circumstances. This, of course, all happens in what we would call an instant. The selection process most likely occurs at the dawn of the universe, or the Big Bang as we call our cosmological beginning. There may be other selection events in other multiverse instances, or far away spatial regions, beyond the draw of our gravity. There is not necessarily a purpose or goal for intelligent life to evolve in our universe, and we already know that our sun will snuff out in a few billion years, and with it goes our species. Aside from science fiction, there is no reasonable expectation for human migration beyond our solar system. This is not grim, it is just an awakening to enjoy what we have in peace and harmony with our neighbors, human and otherwise, as long as we have it. Our home is a sweet, hospitable solar system, and it is the only home we will ever have.

Resonance can also be a factor in creating or marshalling the force behind the initial inflation of the universe. Separating resonating forms of particles from others in the primal disorganized state of the big bang automatically enables electromagnetic forces to interact and attract or repel other particles based on their properties. This also separates resonating particles from non-resonating dark particles. End result: explosively expanding matter and space!

So again, life as we know it is not a major priority for our universe. But at least we can try to understand and record our thoughts and theories for future generations and other worlds beyond our solar system or for extraterrestrial beings if any intelligent beings will ever be able to discover our story on Earth. Besides, it’s always fun to investigate and figure out how we came to exist in the first place. And why? Another way of looking at it is that the inherent randomness of molecular resonance and biological selection is also a long-term factor that favors building molecules and galaxies and some form of either simple or complex or even sophisticated life over repetitive Big Bangs and any future multiverse or distant cosmological scenario in time and space. As we study dark matter we need to ask: Are we looking for WIMPs or zombie particles, or both, or something else entirely? Remember, we are talking about 85% of the matter we detect by gravity including the matter in our own Milky Way galaxy.

Theory of Everything

The Theory of Everything (ToE) (M-Theory) is an ideal concept for a master theory to integrate gravity theory with particle physics. Today these theories are disconnected and incongruent. Gravity theory is today best represented by Einstein’s General Relativity (GR). Our best understanding of particle physics today is known as Quantum Field Theory (QFT). On a large scale GR is relied upon to predict and understand the movements and behavior of everything we can see with our naked eyes and objects viewed with powerful telescopes. When we send exploratory rockets and robotic rovers to Mars, for example, we rely with 100% confidence on GR to navigate accurately for great distances. Our GPS devices also rely upon GR to accurately identify our current location by connecting signals between satellites and receivers on our cars and mobile devices. But GR doesn’t work with sub-atomic particles that seem to be undaunted by any gravitational formula we apply. Nor can theories of QFT help us or merge with large scale objects. They seem to be incompatible or unrelated in mathematical formula. This was one of Einstein’s greatest frustrations decades ago and still remains a dilemma for today’s cosmologists.

SAM resonance can possibly provide a bridge between these two separate worlds. Since the Big Resonator includes gravity as a factor, there may be a way to predict the masses of particles that resonate based on the force of gravity and the energy of vacuum space. These resonating values would be seen as our Planck constants and other constants in our universe today. Since neither the force of gravity or the energy of vacuum space can be manipulated for experimentation in our universe instance, we can at least deductively derive possible relations. For example, if the constant force of gravity increases, the mass of a resonating quark will also increase. Or the ratio of the force of gravity with the energy of vacuum space may be a better factor in determining resonance values for different particles - the resonator function R = G/E meaning: Resonator = Gravity / Energy. The Figure 3 diagram shows a simple portrayal of this formula as the resonator container box with E and G serving as the main forces that shape both luminous matter and dark matter within space:

Figure 3: Resonator Function Diagram

Assuming that the relationships and ratios in mass and energy between sub-atomic particles must comply with those of our current QFT models, the resonating mass of one particle may predict that of all others. We can also create mathematical models for simulators with computers to predict the specific masses of resonating particles based on different values of gravity force and vacuum space energy. Even without multiverse models this formula of synergy and resonance would still apply. In other words, our universe is tuned to build atoms and molecules that are based on the most resonant and efficient particles available. This is intended to spark your imagination. It is at least speculative discussion on possibilities beyond our current menu of searching for only one type of particle to explain dark matter. Out of the darkness comes the light. Resonance determines the speed of light and all measures of quanta. Amen.

Research Studies Opportunities

Probably the first step is to investigate more closely the types of particles that comprise dark matter. Is it homogenous, or is it comprised of different types of particles with different masses? How can we identify aquantic particles? The study of Abell 3827 cited above suggests that dark photons may be present. If so, did dark photons come from strange electrons or other non-conforming particles? The models of organic chemistry resonance theory can also provide insight into the ways resonance can apply at the lower level of subatomic particles. The basic question that confounds this research is how do we identify invisible objects that don't conform with known types of particles? Can we, for example, send projectiles or focus telescopic tools towards places in our galaxy where we expect dark matter halos to exist at the fringes of luminous matter to sense the presence of particles and measure their masses based on impacts on a sensitive device? Maybe we can improve upon gravitational lensing studies for higher resolution measurements? Perhaps infrared telescopes or x-ray telescopes may reveal more information in this study? Whatever tools we use, if we expand the scope of what we’re looking for, we may find more useful information, even if it does not pertain to our expectations. It’s difficult to get the right answers if you’re asking the wrong questions.

We hope to intrigue you to join the study.

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